Recent developments in the field of cosmology have thrown into question our understanding of the universe’s shape, size, and fundamental workings. A Nature Astronomy paper (Ref.1) has made a bold claim, with a 99% confidence level, that our universe is closed. Another paper (Ref.2) has suggested extremely low odds against an open, flat, and infinite universe. These findings have severely challenged the widely accepted Standard Model of Cosmology (SMC). In fact, there are eight significant shortcomings in the SMC (Ref.3A), which collectively indicate that cosmology is facing a crisis and may require a complete paradigm shift. Major cracks have appeared in the standard model of cosmology.
Currently, the field of physics relies on two foundational theories: General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Mechanics (QM). However, GR and QM are inherently incompatible, leading to a longstanding conflict between these two pillars of physics (Ref.3B). This crisis in physics is openly acknowledged by physicists themselves (Ref.3C).
Subhajit Waugh, a scientist (physicist) at RRCAT, has boldly proposed that the incompatibility between Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity may be due to our incorrect model of the universe (4A). He has put forth a precise description of the shape and size of the universe (Ref.4B), which experts and scientists in the field can examine (Ref.5, 6, 7). Mr. Waugh suggests that adopting an ‘expanding (hyper) balloon’ model of the universe could lead to a unified theory of physics and cosmology, potentially approaching the elusive ‘theory of everything.’
This unconventional viewpoint finds support in Edwin Hubble’s observation that galaxies recede from Earth at speeds proportionate to their distance. This observation aligns with the idea of an expanding balloon as an analogy for the universe. Mr. Waugh contends that this analogy should not have been discarded. He further posits that the ‘wall’ of this balloon universe consists of invisible scalar fields, akin to invisible electric and magnetic fields, and particles that are excitations/resonances within these fields—a concept reminiscent of Quantum Field Theory. As everything, including stars, planets, and humans, is composed of particles, all matter is perpetually confined within the 3D hypersurface of these fields. Mr. Waugh expresses regret that scientists have not recognised that the FLRW metric, the foundation of the SMC, actually paints this picture of the universe. The temporal aspect of both the FLRW metric and Minkowski metric is similar, implying that the 3D hypersurface moves at a velocity of ‘c’ in the fourth dimension. This aspect has been overlooked, with emphasis primarily placed on the scale factor ‘a(t),’ which plays the role of Hubble’s law. To illustrate this situation, Mr. Waugh uses a party balloon analogy: as the balloon expands, two simultaneous events occur—1) a point on the balloon’s wall moves away from its center, analogous to the temporal part of the FLRW metric, and 2) nearby points on the balloon’s surface appear to move farther apart due to the balloon’s expansion, leading to Hubble’s law. [NOTE: Using Waugh’s model, the calculated value of the Hubble constant (71.002 km/s/Mpc) aligns well with accepted values (69.8 and 74 km/s/Mpc obtained through different methods).]
Mr. Waugh contends that one of the most significant mistakes in science is the concept of a four-dimensional ‘SpaceTime continuum’ (Ref.8). Einstein and Minkowski merged the three spatial dimensions with one temporal dimension into a single 4D manifold called SpaceTime. This approach results in a ‘block universe’ view where past, present, and future coexist simultaneously, which contradicts our everyday experiences and numerous scientific observations. An entire book, “The Arrow of Time: The Quest to Solve Science’s Greatest Mystery” by Peter Coveney and Roger Highfield, has been dedicated to highlighting this glaring mistake. Mr. Waugh argues that time is not an illusion, and there is concrete evidence supporting its reality, as evidenced by preserved slices of Einstein’s brain in formalin stored worldwide.
The root of this mistake lies in an incomplete understanding of imaginary numbers (Ref.9), with an imaginary sign concealed in the Minkowski-Einstein SpaceTime equation. This equation, though remarkably successful, does not represent a true 4D SpaceTime continuum. The underlying issue revolves around the omission of a crucial dimension, creating confusion in both physics and cosmology. Mr. Waugh contends that correcting these mathematical assumptions will lead to a significant paradigm shift in science (Ref.10). He has outlined three key steps to challenge prevailing scientific theories and has made testable predictions that could revolutionise science (Ref.11). He firmly believes that all three key steps to overthrow current scientific theories have been met, and a major scientific revolution is imminent. The forthcoming data from the Euclid telescope may confirm the positively curved nature of the universe, indicating it is closed and finite (Ref.12), thereby upending conventional scientific wisdom.
Mr. Waugh’s ‘expanding (hyper) balloon’ model of the universe naturally accommodates both Relativity and Quantum Mechanics, potentially superseding both theories and replacing the Standard Model of Cosmology. [For a clear explanation of the (hyper) balloon model of the universe, please watch this video up to 10:56/16:23.]
In conclusion, the realms of physics and cosmology are undergoing a profound reevaluation, with bold new ideas challenging established theories. Subhajit Waugh’s unconventional model of the universe invites scientists and experts to reconsider the foundations of their disciplines, offering the tantalizing possibility of a unified theory that could reshape our understanding of the cosmos.
1) Planck evidence for a closed Universe and a possible crisis for cosmology https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-019-0906-9
2) Curvature tension: Evidence for a closed universe
3A) A candid assessment of standard cosmology
3B) Relativity versus quantum mechanics: the battle for the universe
3C) World’s largest physics conference in Las Vegas will be grand; but will it be worthwhile?
4A) RRCAT Physicist Proposes New Theory Unifying General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics
4B) We are wrong about the shape and size of our universe: RRCAT Physicist provides a new model of universe.
5) Shape and size of our universe: challenging the Standard Model of Cosmology https://www.researchgate.net/publication/371487379_Shape_and_size_of_our_universe_challenging_the_Standard_Model_of_Cosmology
6) Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity are compatible, and have a common origin: the expanding (hyper) balloon universe
7) Is everything we know about the shape and size of our universe, and how it works, wrong?
8) The biggest mistake in Science: Space and Time do not fuse into SpaceTime continuum.
9) RRCAT Physicist Claims Correct Representation of Imaginary Numbers May Unify General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics
10) Science is standing on shaky mathematical pillars, which guarantees a scientific revolution
11) Scientist Mr. Subhajit Waugh Makes Testable and Falsifiable Predictions that Could Shake up Science to the Core
12) Euclid telescope will revolutionize science, overthrow ruling scientific theories, and usher paradigm shift in science.